Physics Syllabus

CBSE 11th Std

Unit No.Topic.Sub Topic.
Unit-1Physical World and Measurement Details:-Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
• Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units,
fundamental and derived units. Length, mass, and time measurements; accuracy
and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant
figures.
• Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Unit-IIKinematics Details:-•Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and
velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous
velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs,
for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
• Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors,
general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a
real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
• Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in plane-rectangular components.
• Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform
velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion./td>
UNIT III:Laws of Motion Details:-• Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and
Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of
conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
• Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction,
rolling friction, lubrication.
• Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular
motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
UNIT IV:Work, Energy and Power Details:-• Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
• Notion of potential energy, the potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
UNIT V:Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Details:-• Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of
mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
• Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular
momentum with some examples.
• Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; a moment of inertia, the radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation).
Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
UNIT VI:Gravitation Details:-• Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
• Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital
velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
UNIT VII:Properties of Bulk Matter Details:-• Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.
• Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and
turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
• Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure,
application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
• Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and
gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry;
change of state – latent heat.
• Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation.
Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green
House effect.
• Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.
UNIT VIII:Thermodynamics Details:-• Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of
Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of
thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
• Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat
engines and refrigerators.
Unit IXBehaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory. •Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
•Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, the concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and
temperature; degrees of freedom, the law of equipartition of energy (statement only)and application to specific heat capacities of gases; the concept of mean free path.
UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves Details:-• Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced, and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
• Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion.
Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of
waves, a reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes,
fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.

UNIT I:Electrostatics Details:- • Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
• Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
• Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
• Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, the electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field.
• Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination
of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
UNIT II:Current Electricity Details:-• Electric current, the flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.
• Carbon resistors, color code for carbon resistors; series and parallel
combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
• Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference, and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
• Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge.
• Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for
comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
UNIT III:Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Details:-• Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its
application to current carrying circular loop.
• Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and
toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric
fields. Cyclotron.
• Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force
between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque
experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its
current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
• Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. The magnetic
dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic
dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a
magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an
equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic
elements.
• Para-, dia-and ferromagnetic substances, with examples.
• Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
UNIT IV:Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Details:-• Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law,
Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
• Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance
and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit,
resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
• AC generator and transformer.
UNIT V:Electromagnetic Waves Details:-• Need for displacement current.
• Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only).
Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
• Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet,
x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
UNIT VI:Optics Details:- • Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total
internal reflection and its applications optical fibers, refraction at spherical
surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula. Magnification, power
of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror.
Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
• Scattering of light- blue color of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at
sunrise and sunset.
• Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation, and accommodation,
correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.
Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
• Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their
magnifying powers.
Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
• Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width,
coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
• Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
• Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane
polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane-polarized light and Polaroids.
UNIT VII:Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation Details:- • Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric
equation- particle nature of light.
• Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer
experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be
explained).
UNIT VIII:Atoms and Nuclei Details:- • Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model,
energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic
masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
• Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay
law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its
variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
UNIT IX:Electronic Devices Details:- • Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and
semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse
bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).Transistor as a switch .

Chemistry Syllabus

11th Std

Unit NoTopicSub-Topics
UNIT I:Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Details:- • General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: the concept of elements,
atoms and molecules.
• Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage
composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions,
stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
UNIT II:Structure of Atom Details:- • Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature
of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbital-Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT III:Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Details:-• Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.
UNIT IV:Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Details:-• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure,
polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of
molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals
and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear
diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
UNITV:States of Matter: Gases and Liquids Details:- • Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and
boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule,
Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of
gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation.
Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal
behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea
only, no mathematical derivations).
UNITVI :Thermodynamics Details:- • First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and
specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat
summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization,
sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
• Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
UNIT VII:Equilibrium Details:- • Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium,
law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibriumLe Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong
and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid
strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions,
Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative
examples).
UNIT VIII:Redox Reactions Details:-• Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation
number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and
change in oxidation numbers.
UNIT IX:Hydrogen Details:- • Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy
water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;
UNIT X:s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Details:- • Group I and group 2 elements:
• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties
of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
• Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium
hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
• Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
UNIT XIsome P-Block Elements• General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
• Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds:
borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and
alkalies.
• General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous
behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical
properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
• Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones,
silicates and zeolites, their uses.
UNIT XII:Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
Details:-
• General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative
analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect,
resonance and hyper conjugation.
• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations,
carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
UNIT XIII:Hydrocarbons Details:- • Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical
properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation,
combustion and pyrolysis.
• Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism,
physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of
hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and Alkynes-nomenclature,structure of triple bond(ethyne), physical properties, method of preparation, chemical reactions:acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
• Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance,
aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitutionNitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation;
directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene;
carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNIT XIV:Environmental Chemistry Details:- • Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in
atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its
reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global
warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool
for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

12th Syllabus

Unit.NoSub.TopicTopic Content
UNIT I:Solid State Details:-• Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea),
unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density
of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit
cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band
theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
UNIT II:Solutions Details:- • Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids,
solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative
lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression
of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using
colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor
Unit-IIIElectroChemistry Details.• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar
conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law,
electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential,Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
UNIT IV:Chemical Kinetics Details:- • Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction;concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
UNIT V:Surface Chemistry Details:- • Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases
on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity:
enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and
suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids;
properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,
coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
UNIT VI:General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Details:-
• Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction
electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of
aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNIT VII:p- Block Elements Details:-.Group 15 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties;preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid,oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halies (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
• Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation
states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen:
preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur –
allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and
uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture,
properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
• Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation
states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of
halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid,
interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
• Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
UNIT VIII:d and f Block Elements Details:- • General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals,general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character,ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property,magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
• Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and
lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
• Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with
lanthanoids.
UNIT IX:Coordination Compounds Details:- • Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour,
magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear
coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT;importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems.)
UNIT X:Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Details:-• Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical
properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
• Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of
halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
• Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane,
tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Details:- • Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to
methanol and ethanol.
• Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of
phenols.
• Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties
uses.
UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Details:- • Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic
addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
• Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties; uses.
UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Details:- • Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places.
Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in systehetic organic chemistry.
UNIT XIV:Biomolecules Details:-• Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose
and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),
polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins,
primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure
(qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
• Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
• Vitamins- Classification and function.
• Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
UNIT XV:Polymers Details:- • Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and
condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and
synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable
polymers.
UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life Details:- • Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
• Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea
of antioxidants.
• Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Biology

Neet Syllabus

Unit NoTopicContents
UNIT I:Diversity in Living World • What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life;
Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy;
Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos,
Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista
and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes,
Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and
distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiospermsclassification up to class, characteristic features, and examples).
• Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and
chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two
examples)

UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
Details:
• Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts
of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose,
flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the
Practical Syllabus).
• Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems
(digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect
(cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function Details: • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic
reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids,micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and
function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology Details:- • Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell
transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations
– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long-distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure, and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients, and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non
cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory
quotient.
• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth
regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

UNIT IV: Human Physiology Details:- • Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
• Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory
a system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
• Body fluids and circulation: Composition of the blood, blood groups, coagulation of
blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of
the human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double
circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
• Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism,ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial
Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement – ciliary,fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle-contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints;
Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia Gravis, Tetany, Muscular
dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
• Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and visceral nervous system;
Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary
structure and function of eye and ear.
• Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human
endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal,
Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones
as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common
disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes,
Addison’s disease).

Neet CBSE 12th Syllabus

UNIT I: Reproduction Details:- • Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies, and examples; Outbreeding
devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of
seed and fruit formation.
• Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation,
implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and
Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution Details:- • Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from MendelismIncomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood
groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal
disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s, and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation lac- Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.
• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological
evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology, and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare Details:- • Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS;
Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell
protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production,
sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications Details:- • Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V:Ecology and environment Details:- • Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation,
pollination, oxygen release.
• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of
Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks, and sanctuaries.
• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its
control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive
waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion;
Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental
issues.
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